Eclipse: Reality, Deeds, and Rulings
An astronomical solar eclipse apparently occurs when the moon comes between the sun and the earth, which prevents sunlight from reaching the earth, while the fact of the solar eclipse according to Islam is that it is one of the most important signs of God’s power, through which God manifests His greatness and glory, instills fear in the hearts of His servants and warns them of His punishment. It is the belief of a believer that this whole system of the universe, including the sun and the moon, continues to be forgotten under the power and command of God Almighty. The changes that take place in it are also under the adult wisdom of God Almighty, as is the case with solar eclipses. Is. The requirement of this time is that the servant should turn to Allah Almighty by praying, repenting, asking for forgiveness and remembrance, and giving charity, acknowledging His greatness and glory, creating fear in his heart and seeking refuge from divine punishment.
Ahaadeeth on the reality and actions of eclipses:
Numerous hadiths mention the reality of the solar eclipse and the deeds performed at that time. Here are some hadiths:
1⃣ It is narrated on the authority of Hazrat Abdullah bin Masood (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said that an eclipse of the sun and an eclipse of the moon does not happen when one of the people dies, but these are two of the signs of Allah. Yes, so when you see the eclipse of the sun and the moon, get up and pray. (Sahih Bukhari Chapters of Eclipse)
2⃣ Hazrat Ayesha (may Allah be pleased with her) says that in the time of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) there was an eclipse on the day of the death of Hazrat Ibrahim (peace be upon him), so some people said that the eclipse was due to the death of Ibrahim. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: The fact is that the eclipse of the sun and the eclipse of the moon are not due to the death or life of anyone, so when you see the eclipse, you pray and Allaah Pray to the Almighty.
(Sahih Bukhari Chapters of Eclipse)
3⃣ It is narrated from Hazrat Ayesha (RA) that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that when you see the eclipse of the sun and the moon, pray to Allah, recite Takbeerat, offer prayers and give charity.
(Sahih Bukhari Chapters of Eclipse)
4⃣ In a narration of Hazrat Abu Musa (RA), the Holy Prophet (PBUH) says that when you see a solar or lunar eclipse, pay attention to the remembrance, supplication and asking for forgiveness of Allah Almighty. (Sahih Bukhari Chapters of Eclipse)
5⃣ In a narration of Hazrat Abdullah bin Masood (may Allah be pleased with him), the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) says that when you see a solar or lunar eclipse, praise Allah, glorify Him and glorify Him and offer prayers until the solar or lunar eclipse ends. ۔
(Sahih Ibn Khazeema Hadith 1372)
Acts that are proven by the hadiths at the time of solar eclipse:
At the time of the eclipse, a number of deeds have been proven from the hadiths, such as:
1- Arranging to turn to Allah Almighty.
2⃣ Praying the eclipse prayer which is called the eclipse prayer.
3⃣ Arranging prayers, repenting, and seeking forgiveness and seeking refuge from God’s punishment.
4⃣ Arranging dhikr and tasbeehat.
5⃣ Giving charity according to the extent.
The Reality of Eclipse Myths:
The teachings of Shari’ah regarding the reality and actions of solar eclipses have already been mentioned. Apart from these, there is no evidence from the Qur’an and Sunnah of the prevailing superstitions among the people. In this regard, see the fatwa of Jamia Ashraf Madaris Karachi:
It is a well-known fact on the occasion of solar and lunar eclipses that if a pregnant woman leaves the room, the physical health of her pregnancy is affected or if a person looks at the sun in this condition, his eyesight becomes impaired. Or it goes away at all. Such a thing is not proven by the Shari’ah argument and it is not correct to have such a belief. However, since this matter is related to physical health, there is no problem if one takes precautions without believing that the eclipse is effective. No, in the same way, if an experiment or research on the occasion of an eclipse proves that something else is harmful, then there is no harm in taking precautions against it without having any belief in the Shari’ah.
(Fatwa No. 148-28, Dated: 26 Rabi al-Thani 1440 AH)
Basic Eclipse Issues:
1- It is Sunnah to offer two rak’ats of prayers at the time of the solar eclipse, which is emphasized in the hadiths. This is the same method of prayer as the normal two rack’s of supererogatory prayers, so every Muslim man and woman should arrange it. However, if a person does not get a chance to offer prayers, he should engage in du’aa’s, istighf اورr, dhikr, and tasbeehat.
2⃣ It is Sunnah to offer the eclipse prayers in congregation, so men should arrange for the congregational prayers in mosques, Eidgahs, or in the open field, but if there is no arrangement for the congregation, then the eclipse prayers should be offered individually. However, women should offer these prayers individually in their homes. Women who are unable to offer prayers due to menstruation and postpartum should be engaged in du’aa’s, istighfar, dhikr, and tasbeehat.
3⃣ The adhan waqamat for the eclipse prayers is not proven by the Sunnah, so this prayer will be performed without the adhan waqamat, however, there is no problem in announcing inappropriate words to gather the people. (Reporter)
4⃣ It is permissible to offer the eclipse prayers only at the times when it is permissible to offer the supererogatory prayers, so it is not permissible to offer these prayers at the makrooh times.
5⃣ The eclipse prayers should be performed long, in which standing, bowing, prostration, supplications, glorification, and remembrance, etc. should belong. (Reporter)
6⃣ After performing the eclipse prayers, one should be engaged in supplications, repentance, forgiveness, and remembrance and glorification until the end of the eclipse. In such a case, if the Imam and the Muqtada pray together and the Muqtada says Amen, then this is also correct. (Reporter)
7⃣ In the eclipse prayer, the recitation will be said softly or loudly. So both methods are proven by the traditions, so both are correct, but since this prayer is long, it is better if it is recited aloud to maintain the vitality and attention of the people.
In this regard, the fatwa of Jamia Darul Uloom Karachi is that:
In the Eclipse Prayer, the Imam will recite softly or will recite aloud. There is a difference of opinion among the Imams. According to Imam Abu Hanifa, the recitation is secret, while according to one of the sayings of Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, the recitation is poisonous, and according to both the hadith books, therefore, it is permissible to recite in both ways and reciting in both ways will make the prayers valid. However, Ibn Arabi (may Allah have mercy on him) has declared Jahra recitation to be the first, and Allama Zafar Ahmad Usmani Kar Jahan Is. (Fatwa no. 2/3)