PET vs CT Scan? Diagnostic and ongoing monitoring of many diseases and conditions depend heavily on medical imaging. The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning and the Computed Tomography (CT) scanning are two frequently utilized imaging methods. Both approaches offer useful insights on the human body and are used for various objectives, each with its own special advantages. In this post, we will contrast the advantages and uses of PET scans with CT scans in the field of medical imaging.
Understanding and Advantages of PET vs CT Scan
Understanding PET Scan
Small amounts of radioactive material are used in the imaging process known as positron emission tomography (PET), to provide three-dimensional pictures of the interior organs and tissues. It entails injecting a radiotracer into the patient that produces positrons. Gamma rays are released from the body when these positrons clash with the electrons there. These gamma rays are picked up by the PET scanner, which then uses a computer to create precise pictures of the tissue or organ being studied.
Advantages of PET Scan
Functional imaging is the main use of PET scans, which offers useful data on the metabolism of tissues & organs. They aid in the molecular diagnosis of illnesses including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological problems. When illnesses are still in their early stages and structural alterations may not be visible, PET scans are very helpful.
Early Disease Detection
PET scans are quite good at picking up on aberrant cellular activity. They are able to recognise malignant tumours, judge how aggressive they are, and spot metastases by visualising metabolic processes. PET scans can aid in the early diagnosis of illness, allowing for prompt therapy interventions and better treatment results.
Monitoring Treatment Response
Monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic approaches like radiation or chemotherapy therapy requires the use of PET scans. Doctors can evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and make the required modifications to improve patient care by looking at metabolic changes within tumours.
Understanding CT Scan
A common imaging method called computed tomography (CT), uses X-rays to produce fine-grained cross-sectional pictures of the body. It entails turning an X-ray source over the subject and taking a number of photos from various perspectives. Computer processing of these pictures results in cross-sectional images that provide comprehensive details on the interior architecture.
Advantages of CT Scan
Bones, organs, and tissues may all be viewed structurally in great detail thanks to CT scans. They have excellent clarity and are capable of picking up anomalies such internal bleeding, tumours, or fractures. In an emergency, CT scans are frequently used to diagnose injuries swiftly and direct surgical procedures.
CT scans are quite rapid; the entire scanning procedure usually only takes a few minutes. Because of this, they are appropriate for individuals with low tolerance levels or those who require immediate medical care.
CT scans are adaptable and may be done on different body sections. They are helpful in making diagnoses for a variety of ailments, such as neurological problems, gastrointestinal anomalies, and cardiovascular diseases. Technology developments have also made it possible to create specialised CT scans, such as virtual colonoscopies or cardiac CT scans.
Comparing PET and CT Scan
While PET & CT scans each offer unique benefits, combining both of them imaging modalities can improve diagnostic performance. PET/CT scanners combine the anatomical detail provided by CT scans with the functional information received from PET scans. With the use of this data fusion, doctors can pinpoint the exact location of aberrant metabolic activity inside the body, which helps with diagnosis and therapy planning.
How does a PET-CT Scans Work?
You will get an insignificant injection of the radioactive sugar fluorodeoxyglucose-18 before to your PET-CT scan. Sometimes this chemical is referred to as a tracer, radioactive glucose, or FGD-18. Sugar is absorbed by your body’s cells. More sugar is absorbed in areas with higher energy use. In general, cancer cells consume more energy than normal cells.
The radioactive tracer’s location within your body is revealed by the PET scan. Your body is x-rayed from a variety of angles during a CT scan. Prior to the x-rays, you might have a dye injection. This enhances the visibility of some of the details. A computer then mixes the pictures from the PET & CT scans. A thorough 3-D report is sent to your doctor, showing any abnormalities, including tumours.
The regions that require to be scanned can be reduced or lower dosage scans can be used. Ensure that all of your physicians are aware of how many scans of imaging you’ve had, as well as how many and what kind. They can use this information to select which scans to do in future in order to help lower your risk. If you are worried about your exposure to radiation, speak with your doctor and see if there is a test you may undergo that utilises less radiation.
Are PET-CT Scans Safe?
Radiation exposure is a problem with PET-CT scans. Radiation via x-rays, the chemical used for a PET scan, or both may be used in this sort of scan. Less radiation is generated during a smaller body area scan. The same is true for a CT scan that isn’t dyed to aid show details.
Usually, the advantages of these testing outweigh the hazards. You will be subjected to very modest doses of radiation throughout these examinations. It has not been demonstrated that this little radiation exposure is harmful. There may be a little possibility of an elevated risk of cancer in the future for kids or other individuals who require several PET, CT scans, and x-rays.
Who will do my PET-CT Scan?
Your PET-CT scan will be performed by a technician who specialises in doing these scans. A doctor who specialises in reviewing test findings will examine your scan when the examination is complete. This individual is a radiologist or an expert in nuclear medicine. What the outcomes imply will be decided by them. Hospitals or imaging testing facilities can do PET-CT scans.
Getting Ready for a PET-CT Scan
The staff will provide you with preparation instructions when you arrange a PET-CT scan. To prevent altering the findings of your scan, pay close attention to their directions. Discuss the following issues with the staff and seek clarification on any facts that worry or annoy you.
What to eat. Only clear beverages after midnight the night preceding the scan, you could be instructed. You might need to halt all meals and beverages four hours before to the scan, depending on what area of your body will be examined. You can generally eat and drink before various scans.
Your medication and health history. On the day of the examination, you’ll find out if you should take your regular prescriptions or supplements. Tell them if you’re suffering from diabetes or any other medical concerns as well. Your test findings in particular can be affected by diabetes, and the tracer’s radioactivity can affect your blood sugar levels. Inform the personnel if you are nursing or think you might be pregnant. These scans may endanger the unborn child.
Allergies. Please inform the staff of any medication or dietary allergies you may have, particularly any previous history of iodine sensitivity.
What to avoid. Do not exercise vigorously the day before your exam, such as running, jogging, or weightlifting. Your scans may be less accurate after exercise.
What to wear. Dress comfortably in loose-fitting clothes free of metal buttons or zippers. Any garment containing metal must be taken off since it can interfere with the scan. Belts, earrings, clothes with snaps / zippers, bras and spectacles fall within this category. You can put on a hospital gown if your clothes cannot be kept during the scan. You might wish to leave your jewellery at home the time of your test because you will be requested to take it off.
Costs, insurance, and permission. Before the scan, find out which costs your insurance will cover if you are worried about the price of your PET-CT scan. Ask what portion of the expense you will be responsible for. The staff members at the hospital or doctor’s office will require you to sign a permission form once you arrive. This form certifies that you are aware of the advantages and dangers of the scan and that you consent to having it.
During the PET-CT Scan
An IV will be inserted into one among your veins by a staff member. There is a needle linked to this narrow tube. An IV pokes you like a pin. You will be given the radioactive material for the scan when the IV is started. You won’t experience any side effects from the radioactive chemical.
After the drug has been administered, you can sit comfortably in a chair but you must restrict your movement and prevent exercise. A chemical may travel into unstudied locations if it is moved too extensively. The scan is now more challenging for clinicians to interpret. The radioactive material needs 30 to 90 mints to get to the target bodily areas.
You can also be instructed to consume a contrast beverage. Additionally, you could get contrast fluid through your IV. The images get sharper because to this contrast liquid. You will be instructed to use the toilet for emptying your bladder just before the test starts.
Your IV site may get warm or itch as a result of this fluids. A metallic taste might also be present in your tongue. Within a few minutes, these emotions ought to go. Say something immediately if you experience a more severe response, such breathing difficulties.
The technician will assist you in setting up your body on a table so that it is completely comfortable when the scan is about to start. Although you’ll probably lay on your back, you could also have to rest on your stomach / side. What area of your body has to be scanned will determine how this works.
Planning radiation therapy for treating the cancer may occasionally involve a PET-CT scan. Your body posture will be crucial in this scenario. You are positioned by the technologist wearing a mask or cast. These devices aid in maintaining complete bodily stillness throughout the scan.
The PET-CT device resembles a large donut. The table starts to move fast through the opening in the middle. This aids in determining if you are at the proper position. The table then gently moves back and forth. The exam will be observed by a staff member in a neighbouring room. Both of you can communicate with them via conversation.
After the PET-CT Scan
You can do normal activities after the scan. This includes driving. The staff will tell you to drink several glasses of water. This helps wash the radioactive substance and dye out of your body.
The precise medical issue being assessed determines whether a PET scan or a CT scan should be used. Functional imaging is where PET scans thrive, giving important information about metabolic activity, disease development, and therapy effectiveness. Contrarily, CT scans are perfect for thorough structural imaging, making it possible to spot anatomical anomalies and provide instructions for surgical procedures. PET/CT scanners have become effective instruments in contemporary medical imaging by combining the advantages of the two modalities, improving the precision and effectiveness of diagnosis and therapy across a variety of medical specialities.